Even in rattlesnake-heavy areas, all things being equal – some houses are much more prone to snake encounters than others.
Based on 8,000+ call records to our 24/7 rattlesnake removal hotline, some minor differences in the placement and features around your home can make a huge difference … and unfortunately, there’s not much you can do about it.
The biggest of these environmental factors is just the placement of your home. Many residential developments share a block wall behind rows of houses, with the end being open as drainage or access. In this incredibly common situation, the homes found at the end of the block wall will likely see many more snakes than other houses on the street.
These block walls also help provide shade, and brush and debris often accumulate here as well. Some communities even edge these walls with piles of rock, which makes a very enticing situation for snakes and their prey.
Think of that wall as a funnel. Snakes (and other animals) traveling through the area can’t climb over it and are forced to go one way or the other. At the end of the wall, the first home “catches” any snake first. They either continue around the wall to the backyard or keep moving straight. For this reason, snakes are more often found in the yards of the first home, and the second home to a lesser degree.
After the second home, the chances of rattlesnakes in the yard tends to decline rapidly. A rattlesnake found at the 4th or 5th home in line had to first travel through multiple yards and pass up whichever opportunities are present.
I live on the corner! What can I do about it?
The first thing you can do is to make it so that when a rattlesnake does come around that wall, it won’t find anything that will make it want to stay. Get familiar with our guide to keeping your yard snake-free, and don’t be afraid to go a little bit overboard. Anything that you can do to deny resources, food, water, shelter, and access will help the snakes keep moving down the street (sorry, neighbors).
This is also why it’s extremely important if you are considering rattlesnake fence installation for your home, that the side gates are properly secured. Even with low view fencing in the back, rattlesnakes are just as likely to just come through the front gate, where they can get “stuck” in the yard. (this is the reason why rattlesnake fence installation is an “all or nothing” solution – anything less is just a snake trap).
Consider keeping the trash cans in the garage instead of in the side-yard, if the side-yard is on the side of the property bordering the opening. Our rattlesnake removal team has removed countless rattlesnakes from this exact situation. The less cover, the better.
If the edges of the property are lined with deep rock piles, as is often the case in newer communities around the valley, your chances of seeing a snake just went up. Do everything you can to prevent bushes and weeds from growing around the edges, along the wall, and create an open space between the wall and the open desert behind it. Much of this is likely managed by the HOA, so be sure to mention to them that you are concerned for your safety and provide reasoning, and you may be given permission (or they will do it).
One of the biggest questions we get each November, when homeowners are surprised that snakes keep showing up in their social media feed: When do snakes go to sleep?
For snakes, that answer can be complicated. Snakes don’t really hibernate in the winter in the sense most of us are familiar with. Instead, they go into a state called brumation. During brumation, snakes live in their dens, but they’ll come out to bask in the sun on pleasant winter days.
Rattlesnakes in the Phoenix and Tucson areas can generally be found at the dens from October through March. When people see them basking outside of their dens, it sends waves of panic through news outlets, who report that snakes are coming out earlier that year. They say the same thing every year, even though snakes emerge right on time.
Their move towards dens (ingress) and out of dens (egress) is prompted by average temperatures, and other factors. If there are a few warm days in January, rattlesnakes might come out to bask and be spotted by people, but they are not starting their spring activity yet. They know not to leave their dens completely before temperatures have stabilized.
What makes a rattlesnake den?
Rattlesnakes choose very specific dens with steady temperatures during the coldest months. In the wild, these include large rock piles and caves with deep access. They know what’s best, even choosing the direction that the entrance faces.
On certain days, you’ll find rattlesnakes outside of their dens, basking in a mixture of shade and sunlight that brings their bodies to a comfortable temperature. They might be under a bush, between rocks or in the corners of a patio. This can be very surprising for homeowners.
Rain, too, can get snakes moving even on the coolest of days. In our area, rain is rare, and a drink is always welcome. A cloudy, drizzly day in the mid 60’s in January is an excellent day to see rattlesnakes on the surface.
If you see one snake between November and March, there may be a higher possibility that more might be denning in the same area. Rattlesnakes can den communally without many territorial problems. If you see a snake in the area during the winter months, it’s important to be very careful and watch for other snakes. In our warm climate, those dens are usually small, with just a few individuals. You’ve probably seen photos online of holes with hundreds of rattlesnakes pouring out of holes in the ground, but that’s not how it looks in Arizona.
Rattlesnakes may return to the same den year after year. This can be interrupted when construction or landscaping changes the area, destroying the den that the snake is trying to find. In that case, the snake will wander to the next best area. Homeowners frequently see rattlesnakes on their properties after construction begins.
What to do in the winter to keep your home rattlesnake free.
If you live in a desert area, it’s still important to watch for snakes in the winter.
Look where you’re walking.
Make sure to check your yard before letting young children play outside.
If you’re having landscaping changed, or if construction begins in your area, keep a watchful eye out for wandering snakes.
If you see a snake, call us at ——-. One of our removal experts can relocate the snake and check your property. Something you may also want to consider is having a Rattlesnake Fence professionally installed in your yard. No matter what, when the snakes “wake up” in early March, you’ll want to be ready for it.
For many homeowners living in rural areas or urban contact zones, snake encounters on the property are a concern. Most of these encounters are harmless, but venomous varieties, such as rattlesnakes, are not at all uncommon. Whether it be due to potential dangers or just because people just don’t like snakes, just how to keep them away is often a matter of debate.
In this article, we’ll cover methods of keeping snakes away that actually work, and which you should avoid. This is based on thousands of snake relocation and encounter records at homes in Arizona, and generally accepted advice and recommendations from qualified biologists and herpetologists across the country. What you will not find here are quips from pest control companies or your ‘interesting’ neighbor. Consider this your be-all guide for keeping snakes away, all based on real situations.
Fortunately, these are methods that can also not cause any harm to local wildlife, even the snakes that you probably dislike if you’re reading this article. Along with actions that will keep snakes away come others that will help you along the path of being ok with the ones that show up anyway.
Note: Because this information is based on our experiences with snake removal and prevention in Arizona, it will be most relevant for the prevention of rattlesnake species within the desert southwest. However, these basic principles can be applied anywhere with snakes in general, though perhaps not as specifically.
1. No free lunch – eliminate rodents and other food sources.
Snakes are like other animals in that much of their activity is centered around looking for and obtaining food. For most species of snakes that show up in peoples’ yards, that food is a rodent.
Perhaps the best way to keep snakes away is to keep rodents away. Likewise, if your yard is full of unrestricted rodent holes, you’re more or less inviting snakes into the area. If you want to make an immediate dent in how many snakes may be showing up around your house, get on the pest control situation as soon as possible.
Rodent activity can attract snakes from far away, too. Rodents that may be coming in at night to eat the numerous food sources we as homeowners tend to provide leave scent trails that radiate well beyond the borders of your property. That means a snake crawling 100′ past your fence line could detect the rat that’s been getting into your dog food bin each night, and make a course correction to set up an ambush right outside your doggy door.
Unfortunately, this also means that having a generally higher number of rodents in the neighborhood can mean more snake encounters for everyone, so to a large degree, you may be left at the mercy of your neighbors. If there’s a property on the block that you suspect may be bringing more rodents into the area, do what you can to bring it to the attention to the homeowners.
Sometimes the neighbors bring the problem in.
For example, a home I recently visited to capture a Gophersnake had an immaculate yard free of any rodents. The neighbors’ property, however, where the snake crawled over the wall from, was different. Rows of citrus trees, and the leaves and fruits on the dirt, were attracting rodents from the nearby canal and elsewhere. The result is more snakes for everyone. The yard was otherwise very clean and well-maintained, but some situations create more rodent issues, and consequently snake issues.
Not all snakes eat rodents – some are primarily interested in invertebrates and lizards. Though the causes are different, the same rules apply. The fewer prey items are available, the fewer snakes will be attracted to the area to hunt them.
An abundance of crickets, scorpions, centipedes, ants, and even cockroaches can support a variety of small snakes. These bug-eating snakes, like Groundsnakes and Nightsnakes, also tend to be the species that end up inside of the home, just by their nature. In general, the homes where we are called to retrieve multiple instances of these small snakes also have a high volume of insects. An abundance of bugs also helps support a larger lizard population, and then, of course, the snakes that prefer to eat lizards.
So while no snake is going to come into your yard to go after the dog food left outside, rodents will, and then come the snakes. Attracting rodents is the same as attracting snakes, and should be handled as such.
Many species of snakes (including rattlesnakes) also eat birds. If you live where rattlesnakes do, and have a bird feeder (or for squirrels, etc), expect to see rattlesnakes sitting in ambush at its base at some point. If you take action to invite wildlife to your yard, you should know it is inviting all wildlife to your yard.
Important note: in your effort to rid your yard of rodents, pass on any poison bait or traps that use rodenticide. If you use those products, you’re also killing bobcats, birds of prey, coyotes, and a variety of other natural predators. If your pest control guy says this doesn’t happen, spend a few minutes on Google to learn how wrong that is.
Steps you can do right now to reduce the number of snake-prey in your yard:
Keep dogfood inside, and keep dog poop picked up as much as possible (yes, rodents eat it)
Avoid using bird feeders, especially any that use seeds
Find a good pest control company that can help (no poison bait!)
Use water to flood and destroy rodent burrows when you see them
Eliminate all food sources – fruit and nuts from trees, unsecured garbage, grease traps from the grill, etc.
2. Eliminate habitat – landscaping methods to prevent wildlife.
In the wild, vegetation is a very important part of the microhabitat systems that are used by snakes. The right plants provide cover, thermoregulatory dynamics, hunting opportunities, and more. Some of the same plants that we, as homeowners, often choose because they are pretty or provide a certain aesthetic, also give snakes ideal spots to hide and hunt.
The greatest offender? Lantana. These low-to-the-ground flowering plants seem to be on the list of default landscaping choices for most homes in Arizona. The problem? Snakes love them … rattlesnakes in particular. So do rodents, birds, lizards, and invertebrates that snakes eat. It’s not the plant itself that they like, but the deep leaf-litter almost always found under them. They tend to become quickly overgrown, are over-watered, and a mess in general. A decorative rock pile or wall lined with lantana is an absolute snake magnet.
Next on the list are any other plants that similarly provide deep cover opportunities, retain water, and catch a deep layer of rotting plant material. The silliest of these is the rosemary plant. There is a myth floating around out there that rosemary repels snakes, when in fact, the opposite is true.
Bush plants are best avoided if you don’t want to see wildlife.
The truth is, any plant that provides unchecked cover, tends to shed a lot of leaves, and needs to be often watered, is useful to snakes. If you have any plants that could be described this way, be sure to keep them as well-maintained as possible, removing all leaf litter, and carefully watering only as much as the plant needs. If you have these plants and wish to keep them, be sure that if you look at them from directly above, you can see some bare ground through the branches.
A rule of thumb for snake-unfriendly landscaping: if you have a bush that you’re not sure you love, get rid of it.
Some plants attract snakes by proxy. As described earlier, citrus trees (or any fruit-bearing plant) and trees that produce a lot of seeds or nuts can attract rodents and birds … which snakes will seek out.
If you prefer cactus, that’s great. They don’t use much water, don’t drop any leaves, and provide almost no shade. However, be careful with prickly pear (and similar) cactus. The base of these cactus is a common home for packrats, which are very important to rattlesnakes.
Perhaps the best thing you can do is to go natural – work with native plants and landscaping that doesn’t need a lot of water, and is easy to maintain. A variety of cactus, Palo Verde trees, ocotillo, creosote and others are all native to the Arizona desert and easy choices. Consider ditching the lawn and mid-western style yard for something a little more in-line with natural soundings, and you won’t be providing an unintentional oasis for snakes.
Steps you can do right now to reduce the number of snake-prey in your yard:
Go natural – design landscaping with native plants, cactus and others that require less water and provide minimal shade
Remove or replace lantana, rosemary, and similarly “heavy”, leafy and shaded plants.
If you do keep lantana or rosemary, keep it well-maintained and always remove leaf-litter
Change the watering schedule to be only as much as needed. If you have native plants that are healthy, consider removing the drip system entirely.
3. End the oasis – keeping water sources dry and unavailable.
Especially in desert areas, providing water sources can be a major source of snake encounters. Snakes need water, like all animals, and they’ll often stop by to take a drink when it’s offered.
Swimming pools are a common source of water, and you can’t do a lot to prevent that. However, a lot of swimming pool snake encounters are because the snake actually falls into the pool, and can’t escape. There are, fortunately, a lot of cheap products available to help with this. You’ll also inadvertently be finding fewer dead rodents in the pool, too.
Water gives much more than a cool drink on a hot day.
Water doesn’t just attract snakes that want a drink – free water sources are a place that other animals use as well. A dripping air conditioner condensation pipe, or example, makes a great bird bath, or spot for rabbits and rats to visit and get a drink. Snakes go where the prey is, and if you’re attracting a supply of rodents and birds, you’ll also attract the animals looking to eat them. Even worse, rodents that live and move well outside of your property lines may be using your home as a resource, and those scent paths lead right to back to your place.
Water also helps to just keep an area cool, which is a major challenge to desert-dwelling animals, including snakes. A shaded corner of the backyard becomes even more attractive when the leaky hose provides, essentially, an evaporative air conditioner.
Automatic sprinkler systems and drip hoses are standard features with any new home in Arizona. They come with a lot of opportunities for wasted water and the creation of a mini-oasis for local wildlife, including snakes. If you have automatic sprinklers, be sure to adjust the timing to be just as much as is needed, in the places it should be. If there’s a native palo verde tree at the edge of your property, it likely does not need daily watering.
An unfortunately common part of new housing developments, from our experience, are poorly-planned and managed parks, often with “drip systems to nowhere” at the edges that are watering native plants, or in many cases, nothing at all. Even though this is not at all on your property, there may be something you can do about it (see the later section on homeowners associations).
Things you can do to reduce water sources and lessen the chances of finding a snake in your yard:
Replace any leaking hose, spigot, or anything else that’s dripping. Wet dirt = snakes
Buy and install critter ramps and filter covers to make sure snakes that do drink from the pool can escape
Put a coffee can or bucket under air conditioning condensation pipes to avoid unintentional bird baths
Adjust automatic sprinklers to be efficient and eliminate any waste
Consider native plants and landscaping that uses less water
Fountains, birdbaths, ponds, and decorative water features that can be removed, should be
4. Maximize exposure – even snakes want to stay cool.
While the common belief is that snakes like it hot, the truth is that they spend much of their time trying to stay cool. Active thermoregulation is the behavior of cold-blooded animals to seek out not just hot temperatures, but the right ones, and in the desert southwest that mostly means trying to stay out of the sun.
A body temperature of only around 110ºF is lethal to a rattlesnake. Anyone in Arizona who’s tried to go get the mail barefoot knows that the ground is much hotter than this almost any day. Through most of the year, the open, unshaded ground is simply lethal to snakes, and they will look for opportunities to stay cool.
That’s not much different than how we behave in an Arizona summer. Your property most likely has many of these shade opportunities as a result. But eliminating them to keep snakes away isn’t a simple task – it may require some tough choices, and could impact how the property looks and feels. Basically, the more that your yard resembles the surface of the moon, the fewer snakes will be able to make use of it. Most of us don’t need to go that far, and there are some easy solutions that can usually be implemented without a lot of aesthetic heartbreak.
Proper landscaping can help minimize shaded hiding spots.
As stated elsewhere in this article, landscaping choices have a large impact on how much cover is available to snakes. To keep snakes away, you’d be better off choosing plants that can be cut high off the ground and don’t provide overly shaded areas.
Hedges and rows of bushes along walls are notorious for providing shade to rattlesnakes. If you can’t see the ground under your bushes, it’s time to cut them back. If that’s not possible, it may be good to consider a different landscaping choice.
Decorative rock piles are a major source of snake conflict issues. Where we most often see these issues are in the decorative rock formations that are commonly placed near swimming pools. The concrete that is used to bind the rocks together deteriorates faster than the rock itself, leaving large openings that snakes love. If you have one of these features, make sure that it’s always well-maintained, and fix any issues that you see immediately.
Other types of decorative rock can also cause problems, but not for the reasons many people expect. The standard rip rap used to line properties and slow erosion is typically installed in a way that is far too shallow for snakes to make use of. If they’re looking for shade, they’d find an oven. However, if you have rip rap that is stacked or placed in a way that is multiple layers deep, you may have issues.
More than a meal: rodents are builders of snake homes.
As stated earlier, rodents should always be kept in check. In addition to being a food source, rodents dig tunnels and provide shelter opportunities for snakes. What’s better than a free meal? A free meal and a sheltered place to nap afterward. If you avoid providing these situations, snakes have little use for your backyard.
Rodent activity in some areas can create ideal situations to attract snakes. In particular, the concrete pads where pool pumps and air conditioning units are placed, are absolute snake magnets when combined with a busy rodent. These also tend to be in places where people seldom visit, and even heavy rodent activity can go unnoticed for a long time.
You may also be unknowingly providing shelter for snakes by just not having a clean yard. That’s always the elephant in the room when talking about how to keep snakes out of a yard, but quite simply: if the property is used to store junk, you can expect animals to move in.
We all have that area in the yard where we put our unused pavers, tiles, the woodpile, pool toys we mean to throw away, and other “some weekend when it cools down” items. These are most likely in the side-yard, or somewhere that isn’t under as much supervision as other parts of the yard, which all lead to ideal situations for snakes to move right in. One of the best things you can do right now to make your yard less attractive to snakes is to spend a Saturday going through the yard removing all of these items.
Any space where animals can get access to stay out of the heat should be considered a possible snake hiding spot. Other common situations are plastic tool sheds and pool toy boxes that are stored on dirt. If it’s cool, it’s useful.
Wood piles, too, are notorious for snake activity, especially during the winter months. If you keep a pile of firewood outdoors, make sure it is on a platform at least a foot above the ground. You should also rotate the wood pile out completely every season, and make sure that you don’t end up keeping a few perpetual logs at the bottom that just never get used. Consider moving the entire thing each year, too, to a new location. These actions will greatly diminish its usefulness to anything that may want to hide under it.
Things you can do to reduce shade opportunities and see fewer snakes in your yard:
Keep landscaping in a way that minimizes shade
Decorative rock formations need to be well-maintained and rodent-free
Rip rap and erosion-control rock placements should be only a single rock-layer deep
Keep rodent activity under control, especially near structures like AC units and pool pump equipment
Get rid of the junk and storage items in the yard
Keep wood piles up off the ground, and rotate them out each season
5. Keep walkways clear
A surprising number of snake encounters happen right where people would least like them: right at the front door. This doesn’t necessarily mean that snakes really love these areas, though. It’s more likely that people just have more encounters here because it’s where we tend to be the most often. Every day we come and go from these entryways multiple times, so if something new is there, like a rattlesnake, we tend to notice it.
Covered entryways do provide some good stuff for snakes. Mostly, this is in the form of well-shaded cover. Covered entryways are a popular feature at most newly-built homes in Arizona, and these shaded overhangs superficially resemble the shallow caves and spaces that rattlesnakes call home during the summer months.
This is, of course, nothing you can do a lot about without some major changes to your home’s construction. But there are still some things you can do to help keep visiting snakes moving along, and less likely to set up shop opposite the welcome mat.
You want to keep the area as clear and open as possible. If there’s a snake there, you want to see it. The pots and decorations that are usually in the corners of entryways help provide a bit more cover, and we find snakes behind them every day. Pull them back, expose the space, and make it less of a hiding spot.
Avoid adding more water to further cool the area, too. If you have plants in the area, avoid situations that could further attract snakes. Lantana, rosemary, and other plants that provide deep cover only make these easy-to-access ‘caves’ all the more attractive to snakes.
To avoid snakes hanging out by the front door, here are some things you can do:
Pull pots and plants away from the corners and leave as much space as possible between it and the wall.
Avoid extra plants or landscaping that provides deep cover
Keep decorations to a minimum, or none at all
6. No free rent – keep up on building maintenance
Perhaps the greatest potential source of shelter for snakes on any property is the house itself. It doesn’t take much for a rodent to get into a faulty foundation, dig under patio pavers, or otherwise create access for snakes to move in.
The best way to keep that from happening is to simply keep absolutely up-to-date on any maintenance issues that pop up. If you see a crack in the foundation, don’t wait, get that fixed immediately. The more time it goes without correction, the more rodents will dig into it, animals will learn to use it, and the more your foundation turns into a welcoming, cool cave.
As stated earlier, decorative rock formations are great to attract snakes to a property. It’s not the rocks, but the tendency for them to quickly degrade. If you see any cracks forming, fix it right away. That goes for any other similar situation (mostly associated with the pool). If you see a crack, fix it.
Concrete areas, like driveways and walkways, are often installed over material that makes it easy for rodents to dig. This can create caves that snakes may find useful. Along with any other area of the property, make sure to jump right on any cave that looks to be forming underneath. We have recovered many rattlesnakes over the years from holes caused by rodents or erosion in these situations.
Manufactured homes present another issue, often requiring more immediate attention than homes with a dug-in concrete foundation. The skirting material that surrounds the base of the home is often poorly sealed and comes apart easily after only a few years. Every year, we receive numerous phone calls from homeowners who discover (usually by someone trying to fix the air conditioning ducts under the home) that there are rattlesnakes living underneath. If you have a manufactured home, I can’t stress enough that your skirting needs to be sealed completely and always in top condition.
Things you can do to your buildings to see fewer snakes in your yard:
Fix any maintenance issue immediately, especially if it could provide access to the foundation
Watch for rodent activity and erosion under concrete areas, walkways, and the driveway
Always keep the skirting around manufactured homes in flawless condition and allow no access under the home.
Any deterioration or gaps in the flashing along the underside of the home should be fixed immediately.
7. Keep out and stay out! – physical barriers and snake fencing
The best thing that you can possibly do to keep potentially dangerous snakes out of your yard is to install physical barriers. These barriers may work better for some species than others, but the majority of the solutions out there focus on keeping venomous snakes out.
Avoid anything called a “snake trap” or any sort of fencing, plastic mesh, or netting that actually captures and kills the snakes. Even if you don’t care much about the well-being of the snakes, you’ll also be killing a lot of other animals that people do tend to like, like birds, rabbits, lizards, and others. You could also be put in danger by having to deal with a trapped, injured, and terrified rattlesnake.
Nonvenomous and small snakes can climb walls and other surfaces that provide sufficient grip. Something like a Gophersnake, Ratsnake, or Kingsnake is going to be able to get where it wants to in most cases. Fortunately, this isn’t an issue … they’re harmless.
There should be some separation between the goals of preventing snakes when it gets down to it. Snakes that are harmless that people would just rather not see, and snakes that do actually pose some danger. A solution that is effective for the dangerous snakes, but does not make claims to keep out harmless ones, is a realistic and worthwhile answer to your problems. If anyone does claim to be able to build something that will keep all snakes out 100%, they’re lying to you.
Rattlesnake Fence Installation is a service that places materials, such as steel and concrete, in and around features of the property to create a space that rattlesnakes cannot physically enter. This is something that is often performed by landscapers, pest control companies, and a variety of handyman types … but in evaluating hundreds of yards where this service has been performed, one thing stands out: rattlesnake fencing is not a do-it-yourself task. There are some very specific factors at play that require deep understanding of rattlesnake behavior and physical capabilities. When you’re looking for a rattlesnake fence installer, go with a specialist or don’t bother.
Any materials that are used for rattlesnake fencing need to be permanent. Avoid any plastic, zip-ties, rubber, or anything that will wear out in the sun. Based on basic rattlesnake biology, and a lot of testing we’ve conducted ourselves in our facility, here are minimum requirements for a successful “snake proofing”:
Steel, no rubber or plastic
Installed to a minimum of 30″ (ideally 36″) above the nearest flat surface.
The largest opening in the entire perimeter of the yard must be a maximum of 1/4″, including gates
If installed against the ground, it must be trenched (buried) into the ground a minimum of 4 inches, preferably more and angled properly.
Use screws and metal materials
ALL entry points must be sealed, or there’s no point to it
Concrete and steel used on all gates, with no way to dig under them.
If you are going to install rattlesnake fencing, be sure that the perimeter is completely sealed. One of the most common scenarios we are called to collect snakes from is a yard where snake fencing has been installed on the fence, but the gates have not been modified. This is where what was intended to keep rattlesnakes out ends up being a snake trap instead. A reputable snake fence installer will walk away from projects where a homeowner insists on only a partial job, so if you plan on installing physical barriers, that’s a question you could ask them to see how much they really know about it.
Things you should consider when looking for a snake fence installer
Does the company have rattlesnake experts on staff or any specialized snake-specific training?
Do they specialize in rattlesnake fencing and snake prevention, or is it something they do “on the side”?
Do they have installation standards based on science and what snakes actually do?
Do they have a good method to seal gates and entryways entirely without any gaps?
Do they use permanent materials, like steel and concrete?
Do they put emphasis on aesthetics and how the finished product looks?
Do they have good customer service?
Do they have numerous good ratings (Google, Yelp, etc)?
Do they make you pay a large deposit (avoid this)?
Are they able to answer your detailed questions about snakes, how to keep them away, and how snake fencing fits into the big picture?
Are they licensed, bonded, and insured?
8. Snake repellents – a stinky scam
There are a number of products on the market that make the claim that they can keep snakes away. While some are chemicals, and others are mechanical or create vibrations, there’s one thing they all have in common: snake repellant products do nothing at all to deter snakes from your yard.
How do I know? As the owner of one of the busiest snake prevention and removal business in the world, I have personally captured hundreds of snakes from yards heavily treated in these products. If expanded to our entire team, that figure is in the thousands. Our records indicate that there is no correlation between spending money on this stuff and seeing fewer snakes in your yard.
Pest control companies will disagree, but that makes sense. Many just don’t know that they don’t work and honestly believe they are helping their customers. However, I’ve had far too many personal conversations with pest control operators where something like “we know it doesn’t work, but our customers ask for it” is muttered. If you’re wasting money on this stuff: cancel it immediately, and or spend that money on increasing (non-poison) rodent control.
There are other regional myths that are passed around as well. The idea that mothballs, rope of any kind, coffee grounds, rubber pellets, the skin of a kingsnake, cat urine, or any others out there actually keep snakes away is not based in reality.
Some may disbelieve all of this, but that’s easy to explain. This is an example of confirmation bias, where information is unintentionally selected that supports a belief. If a person spends hundreds of dollars on a snake repellent, then reports that they see fewer snakes, that person may be left with the idea that snake repellents do indeed keep snakes away. However, it’s more likely that they just haven’t seen more of them, and they are doing other things right as a result of an encounter. By the numbers: don’t buy this junk.
9. Make the Home Owners Association do their part
Some of the biggest issues that we see in neighborhoods where snakes are common aren’t even things that the homeowners can directly control. These are areas between properties, along the edge, the parks, drainages, and areas that are managed by the property managers and homeowners association.
But, just like overgrown grass or some other problem with the neighborhood, you can (or should be able to) demand action if you believe your safety is in danger.
A major offender here are the drainage catchments and parks at the end of outer-area blocks. The default design tends to be just to water everything, even native plants that don’t need it. They create a well-watered, cool transition against the dry desert, and rattlesnakes love to hunt here. If you have one of these parks around your home, especially if you live at the end of the block, you can expect to see more snakes.
In areas like much of Cave Creek and Scottsdale, Arizona, there are spaces between properties where native vegetation is maintained. In these areas, fed by an abundance of trash and citrus-fueled rodents, snakes can have a pretty great life. When it gets too overgrown, however, you may start seeing them in your yard. Even if you have something as effective as a rattlesnake fence installed, if the neighboring trees are growing over it to create a bridge, you’ll have issues. Ideally, all vegetation and trees should be cut back a minimum of 3 feet from the edge of your wall. The clear area will help reduce the usefulness of the wall to rodents, and therefore, snakes. This should be something you can request from the HOA, or have it taken care of yourself with approval.
Some HOAs have rules that actually prevent you from doing what you need to protect your property from potentially dangerous snakes. A great example of this are the varied and largely arbitrary rules dictating the installation of rattlesnake fencing. These seem to be based on appearance alone, ignoring the fact that something as important as a rattlesnake fence needs to, primarily, provide the function of keeping venomous snakes out of a backyard.
The height requirements, approved materials, and installation techniques should be designed for this purpose, but sadly, usually are not. In our experience, most HOAs will gladly modify their regulations if they learn that they are preventing the safety of their residents. Of course this can take a bit of work, so gather information and be prepared to make a case. If you contact the HOA concerned for your safety, and then you are denied the ability to handle that, this may present some concern for them. You can find the most complete list of tested, effective snake fence installation standards in this article.
Things you can request from your HOA to see fewer snakes in your yard:
Modification to drainages and parks to cut back on excessive or redundant watering, especially at the edges.
Cut any outer-area vegetation back at least 3′ from the wall or fence. This can be requested from the HOA directly, or as permission to do it yourself.
Make sure you are able to install snake fencing to the correct specification to actually do the job. If HOA regulations prevent that, campaign to have those rules changed.
10. Your garage is not a cave – your house isn’t either!
Each year, especially in the early spring and again in the hottest times of the year, we are called to capture hundreds of snakes found in garages. The reasons are simple enough – the garage, when accessible, is just a cave. It’s useful to stay warm in the winter, and provides refuge from the brutal summer heat. When the ‘cave’ is filled with a bunch of junk that’s been sitting there for years and even has some mice here and there, why shouldn’t snakes move right in?
You can prevent this, largely, by simply preventing access to the garage. Make sure the garage-door seal is in great condition and fully seals against the ground when closed. Remember that some snakes are tiny … rattlesnakes only need just more than a quarter inch to get in, so make sure it’s absolute. Make sure it is sealed all the way to the sides, and there are no gaps in the moulding or deterioration in the concrete. Any seams or gaps should be filled in along the base where the door closes, too, to prevent snakes from just crawling right in. If you see leaves and dirt in the garage-corners by the door, that’s a good indication that there’s more than enough space for snakes to get in, too.
During the shoulder seasons, when snakes are moving to and from winter den sites or are otherwise very active, make sure to keep the garage door closed. Leaving the door open for long stretches of time on the weekends, which we all can be guilty of from time to time, snakes can crawl right in. Even worse, you can trap them in there when you close the door. If you live in an area where there are a lot of rattlesnakes, consider an open garage an invitation.
For storing items in the garage (who doesn’t?), make sure that they aren’t positioned in a way that would make them useful to snakes. If you can, use plastic boxes or other storage bins that prevent entry, and keep them up off the ground. If you have long-term storage items, make sure that you change their location from time to time, or store them on elevated shelves.
An item that is notorious for snakes is the fake Christmas tree. They are used once a year for a month, then stored again until the following year. They’re completely ignored in the meantime, and we’ve removed more snakes from these fake trees than any other single feature within buildings.
Things you can do to keep snakes out of your garage:
Make sure that the door seal and edges are in perfect shape and seal the outer area completely
Keep the garage door closed at all times unless you are actually coming and going
Keep any stored items away from walls at last a few inches, use plastic bins, and elevate them on shelves whenever possible.
Don’t use the garage for long-term storage. The more stuff is in there, the more snakes (and other things you’d likely not want in there) can use it.
Something you won’t really need to worry about as much as most people think they do: rattlesnakes (or other venomous snakes) coming inside your home. We do very occasionally get a call to capture a rattlesnake inside a home, however it’s exceptionally rare, and generally easy to avoid.
In most of these cases where a rattlesnake is inside a home, the answer to how it got there and why it’s there is obvious. The door was left open on a spring day, the garage was left open while the homeowners were on vacation, etc.. In one instance, the home was so full of rodents that the place should have been condemned, and a rattlesnake moved right in to take advantage of it. These are not typical situations, and rattlesnakes being found inside homes is also atypical.
Other types of snakes may be able to get in other ways. Fortunately, these are very seldom dangerous, but it’s understandable that you’d not want them inside the house! Most of these come in through pretty small openings, like unsealed gaps in doors, and the tracks in sliding glass doors.
In Arizona, a snake that is notorious for getting inside the home is called a Nightsnake. They are often found in the bathroom, kitchen, or laundry room. The reason: pipes. They often end up coming up through drains and into the home.
In some homes, too, the way that cabinets are installed leaves an easy way in for snakes. If you look under the sink, you’ll likely see that pipes are nice and sealed into the hole coming into the cabinet. Behind the cabinet, however, there may be a large hole around the pipes coming into the home. If the cabinets aren’t sealed well underneath, that means there’s direct access from underneath the home to your master bath.
Things you can do to keep snakes out of your home:
Keep doors closed at all times (even nice spring days). It doesn’t take long for a snake to cruise right in.
Make sure sliding doors are sealed up tight
Seal all holes around pipes leading into the house, and make sure cabinets are sealed all around (even under the overhang)
11. Sometimes, there’s nothing you can do.
Sometimes, even if you do every single thing on this list, and make your yard look like the surface of Mars … snakes will still show up. The reason: you happen to live where there are a lot of snakes! Without physical barriers, and no matter what you do to make the yard less attractive to snakes, there is always the possibility for random snakes to be passing through and have an encounter with you.
Some houses are more susceptible to this than others. A great example: houses at the end of the street tend to get many more snake visits than houses on the interior. The shared block wall behind rows of homes, with desert or a wash behind it all, acts like a funnel. Rodents (and snakes) follow the walls one way or another, and if you’re on the end of that funnel, your backyard is the first opportunity to hide, get a drink, and more. This is something for the snake-phobic keep in mind when shopping for a home near wild areas.
Things you should consider with purchasing a home, if you don’t like to see snakes:
Buy on the interior of the neighborhood, rather than the edge.
The last house on the street will usually see more snakes than the others
Contact a snake removal service to ask about specific neighborhoods to gauge how snake-friendly it may be
Ask your realtor about snake activity in the area
12. Learn everything you can about the local snakes
One of the best things you can do to keep yourself and your family safe from snakes is the very activity you’re doing right now: learning about them. Each environment and area has its own variety of snakes, both venomous and harmless, and the more that you know about them, the better you’ll be able to make decisions. Those decisions are both important during the prevention state of snake-safety, and perhaps even more so when you do happen to come across a snake in your yard.
So the snake you just saw racing through your backyard bushes … it was grown, kind of blotchy, thin, but not too thin … is it dangerous? Do you have to lock up the dogs and kids? Move to Canada? Burn the house down? If you had even a basic understanding of the snakes that live in your area, you’d know that, even if it’s not something you care to see, it’s nothing to worry about.
Just about every city or county has some sort of local educational resource available to help you learn the natural history of your local variety of snakes. You can find dedicated reptile-related nature groups, and Facebook groups that offer information and assistance with the identification of snakes. Your local nature center at your regional and municipal parks will also have good information.
Here are some examples of the types of educational materials that are out there in abundance. Even if you’re not really interested in snakes at all, or even science in general, knowing the details of the things you fear can greatly help diminish that fear at the time you may most need it. Eliminating fear is all about preparation, and with snake-related fears, that opportunity exists in abundance.
13. If you do see a snake:
Despite all efforts, if you live where snakes do, you will likely run into one at some point. From the experiences of thousands of our customers: it will be when you aren’t expecting it, and you will be ok.
As stated previously, if you’ve done your homework, you may already know which species it is (or at least, if it’s dangerous or not). Depending on level of knowledge, how fearful you are of snakes, and other factors, there are a few things that you can do to help make the situation safe and feel better about the whole thing.
First, you’ll want to identify it. If you don’t know, take a quick picture and send it to a local snake expert. That could be a herpetologist at your local university, or a nature guide at the nearest regional park. There should be quite a few services out there (including groups on Facebook) that offer free snake ID services. This is something best done long before you ever see a snake, so you can access it quickly without having to search for it.
If it’s a harmless snake, you really don’t need to do anything at all. While there may be some reasons why people still want to remove harmless species of snakes, this would be purely for the benefit of the snake and to ease fears. Whenever possible, once it is known that a snake is harmless, it’s best to be just left alone and it will leave on its own.
If it is a venomous snake, or you are unsure, do not under any circumstances attempt to capture, kill, or otherwise harass the snake yourself. This is not only, ultimately, not the most useful action, but it puts you in danger. Call a snake removal service, or wait for the snake to leave. If you call a snake removal group, follow their instructions, and they should be able to remove the snake, as well as provide a few other key services.
While the intention is respectable, it may not be best to have the local fire department or well-intentioned neighbor handle the situation. They’re not usually well trained in what to do with the snake after it’s been captured, and often injure the snakes in the process. Instead of a rattlesnake in the yard, you could end up with an injured, panicked rattlesnake dropped on the other side of your yard, trying to return. It’s best to stick with professionals.
While the snake removal person is at your home, and after the snake has been captured, ask them a lot of questions … after all, you are most likely paying for it! Ask them to search for more snakes, and why the snake they just caught was there to begin with.
Ironically, actually finding a snake in the yard is often the kick-off point for learning about how to avoid them. If you are reading this article, and have read this far, there’s a good chance it all started with a snake sighting.
If you see a snake in your yard:
Try and take a quick photo of the snake, and send it to the snake identification experts that you’ve already taken note of
If it’s harmless, leave it alone. It will leave.
If it’s venomous or you aren’t sure, either leave it alone, or call a professional snake removal service to handle it.
Do not attempt to handle it yourself, or allow a helpful neighbor do the same. You would be putting yourself in danger and may be responsible if someone else does the same.
Watch the snake until help arrives
Ask the snake removal person about why the snake is there, how it got into the yard, and how to prevent more from showing up
Above all, don’t worry too much 🙂 Snakes aren’t out to get you.
In most places where snakes can be found near homes, this is a hot topic. Snakes are a topic people seem to even, to some extent, enjoy fearing and not knowing much about. However, inevitably, the more that even the most snake-fearing person learns about them, the smaller and smaller the threat becomes.
Remember that in the United States, snakebite is almost never fatal. Accidental bites (where the person isn’t playing with it or trying to kill it) are very rare, too. The danger is mostly in our collective minds, and part of American culture. Odds are, you really don’t have as much to worry about as you may think. You may never want to see a snake in your yard; just remember that snakes don’t want to meet you, either!
Cooler temperatures and the approach of Fall means rattlesnakes are highly active. For the weekend, here are some quick things that you can do to greatly reduce your chances of seeing a rattlesnake in your yard. All of these take less than 1 hour to do, so it’s easy to incorporate them into your Saturday plans.
If you have more than an hour (it may take half an hour to even read this one!) here’s the more thorough, ultimate guide to keeping snakes away.
1. Make life hard for the local rodents
Take an hour and walk your property. You probably already know where the rodent holes are, and have been wondering who has made them. Fewer rodents mean fewer rattlesnakes. Wherever there are rodent holes, destroy them by doing this:
Use a garden hose, placed near the entrance (not inside), and use a low flow of water (maybe 1/4th total flow, if that). You want water to flow into the hole without collapsing the entrance, so that water flows all the way down and fills from the bottom up.
When water has filled to the top, let it soak for a moment, then do it again,until it is clear that the entire hole complex has been flooded. Then, use a tool (or just your boot) and collapse the entrance.
From now on, every time you see a rodent hole, don’t wait – just collapse it with your shoe right then. Make this part of your usual maintenance activity in the yard.
Adjust drip system and automatic sprinkler timers to use just what is needed and eliminate waste.
2. Clean up any debris that you can
The pavers along the side of the house that have been laying in stacks for months? The tarp that you’ve been meaning to get rid of forever? How about the old flower pots left over from last Spring? Well, now’s the time to get rid of it. Clean up what you can, either throw it in the trash (or otherwise get rid of it), or make arrangements for it to be picked up.
If whatever it is is too big to throw away immediately, you can minimize how useful it is by simply moving it a short distance. If there is an old tarp, for instance, if it’s been there for months, the rodent holes and dirt under it may be a lot less attractive to visiting animals if it’s just moved to a new location.
Do a once-over of the entire property to pick up anything that’s creating shaded spots for animals to hide.
If it’s not possible to throw something away quickly, just moving it a short distance to new ground can help.
3. Get rid of the leaf-litter
This one takes more or less time to do yourself, depending on your yard. However, it possibly has the greatest immediate impact. If you have any plants, like lantana or rosemary, with a lot of fallen leaf litter underneath it, get a rake and get rid of it! This material is where rodents often nest, snakes often hide, and is a great place to hide during the day throughout the year. Until you are able to talk to the landscapers to get the landscaping as it should be to keep snakes away (watch for a future article about this one 😉 the best and fastest thing you can do is clean up the ground immediately underneath.
4. Fix the leaky hose!
Snakes, like all animals, need water. A leaky hose is not only a valuable resource for snakes, but their prey of rodents and birds also visit. The result is a mini-magnet for snakes – which is fortunately usually pretty easy and quick to fix. If you have a leaky hose, get a new one. Do whatever you need to so that your yard isn’t an easy oasis for wildlife.
Replace old and leaking hoses, and repair dripping spigots.
Place a coffee can or pan under A/C condensation runoff pipes so water quickly evaporates and doesn’t create a patch of wet ground.
Repair leaky drip systems.
Consider throwing the birdbath out. Birds are great to see, but you’re also inviting the animals that eat birds.
5. Pull the pots in the front entryway away from the wall
Rattlesnakes often rest along the wall in corners of front-entryways. About every day, we are called out to capture at least one snake found in this situation. Even a little bit of cover helps them feel secure, and that cover most often comes in the form of a decorative pot or statue. If you have one of these in the corners by your front door (or back patio), pull them out away from the wall several inches and this can help lessen this effect. For narrow areas, just pull it down the wall so the corner can be clearly seen.
There’s much more … but this is a big, quick start.
The topic of keeping snakes out of your yard obviously goes much deeper than this, but you’d be surprised how much of a dent you can make with just these three steps. Later, we’ll be publishing a full list of things you can do to make your yard less attractive to snakes, but this is just the tip of the iceberg. If you have any snake-related concerns, any or all of these are an easy Saturday project that can make the rest of the weekend a lot more enjoyable.
No. From all available data and evidence, snake repellents don’t work at all. Don’t buy them; it’s a waste of money and can be dangerous.
If you’re someone that’s already typing out a “well it worked for me for X years!”, please stop now and read the rest of this before doing so. You may be a victim of shady marketing practices, and you should direct anger towards those that would lie to you to make a buck instead of this article.
Rattlesnake Solutions has many thousands of records of rattlesnakes found in yards all across Arizona. Yet, we have not seen any perceivable difference between yards treated with snake repellent products (any of them) and yards that have not. We literally find rattlesnakes hiding in and under bags of the stuff, sleeping on top of mothballs, and any combination of these scenarios. Every day, we are called to homes with the tell-tale smell of a cat litter box that tells us one thing: this person was tricked into spending money on snake repellents, and the fact that we are there proves it does not work.
What is a snake repellent?
There are a variety of products that market themselves as capable of keeping rattlesnakes out of your yard. Most are just various forms of the chemicals found in mothballs, but there are some herbal varieties as well. There are some that also claim to mimic the smell of Kingsnake musk (Kingsnakes are natural predators of rattlesnakes). There are other forms as well of the more home-grown variety, such as actual mothballs, coffee grounds, rope (not kidding), lyme, and others. There are other forms, like sonic emitters and various electric fire-hazards, but they’re mostly sold in other countries. We won’t go into any specific products here, because none tend to work better than any others. It’s a great way to make money for a pest control guy, but not an effective way to keep snakes out of your yard.
The proof? Rattlesnakes.
The best measure of the ineffectiveness of snake repellents are the rattlesnakes themselves. If snake repellents worked, we’d not keep finding rattlesnakes in these yards, but we do. The featured image in this post is from a property in 2015 that was completely covered with the stuff. So much, in fact, that the homeowner stored the remaining bags (along with some empties) against the side of the house – inadvertently creating a shaded area. the result? A Western Diamondback Rattlesnake moved in overnight. This un-posed photo was taken by a Rattlesnake Solutions field agent prior to capture and relocation of the snake. Situations that make for such a great photo are rare, but the case of snake-repellent failing to even prevent direct contact with a snake is unfortunately common.
If you think snake repellents work, blame our brains.
If you have used these products and have not seen snakes, it has nothing to do with them. If you’re the type that is actively trying to prevent these situations in your yard, you’re almost certainly doing other things as well that actually do help. Things like: rodent control, good landscaping practice, keeping a clean yard, barriers and physical prevention, etc. If you have experienced this, to the point even where you’ll defend it despite all objective evidence and data, you may be a victim of a logical fallacy called confirmation bias. It’s something we all experience, perhaps some more than others. If a pest control guy has convinced you to give him money for it (or the marketing on the bag at Home Depot, etc), you are invested in having confidence in that decision. There is no such thing as “it works for me” if it doesn’t work for everyone; it works or it doesn’t, and reality is the latter.
Here’s a video that explains how confirmation bias works.
This type of misinformation is dangerous. These products create a false sense of security where none exists, and homeowners, believing their yard to now be immune to snakes, let their guard down and stop the basic safety actions that actually do keep people safe. If it were any other topic but rattlesnakes (the thing people seem to love to not know much about), it would be yanked off the shelves and outlawed.
Another scary and unfortunate fact: when I’ve talked to pest control guys privately about it, the sentiment seems to be “ya we know it doesn’t work, but customers ask for it”. That level of unethical practice being the norm is frustrating at best. There are of certainly pest-control companies that fully believe it to work, so just having it on the list of services doesn’t mean your people are necessarily trying to intentionally deceive you … but many do know it doesn’t work. Surely in the research phase of any of these businesses, the fact that it doesn’t work would make an appearance, and it’s disheartening to see how easily that possibility is swept aside.
What works to keep snakes away?
Keep food, water, and shelter opportunities to a minimum. View your property as habitat to be exploited by local wildlife. The fewer resources exist for animals, the lower the chances are of having a surprise rattlesnake encounter.
A few of the big ones:
Rodent control – rattlesnakes eat rodents, so having rodents coming and going from your property will bring them in.
Eliminate cool and moist areas, like the leaky hose or patch of lawn that nobody really uses.
Clean up dog poop. This can attract rodents and the rattlesnakes that look for them.
Why should we trust you over our beloved pest control guy?
A simple fact: if it worked, we would sell it. If it did work, it would be a great thing for everyone and would be a huge financial benefit to me, personally. But, snake repellents don’t work. Don’t fall for it.
And, if you’re a pest control company and you sell it without even considering the facts here: do better for the people that trust you to protect them.
There are a lot of factors that can affect the decision to protect a property with a snake fence. Perhaps the least-considered of the bunch is the time of year when it’s done. Here’s a little secret that we’ve uncovered after leading the charge rattlesnake protection this last decade: February is the sweet spot for getting a snake fence installed.
Rattlesnakes aren’t very active in February.
Prime rattlesnake activity starts in early March (or so). That means that if last year’s backyard rattlesnake encounters were the last straw, your window of having pre-snake season rattlesnake fencing installed is getting narrow.
While it is true that rattlesnakes are somewhat surface-active every month of the year, they aren’t yet traveling far from their winter dens in February. After winter ends, they’re hungry, looking for mates, and have a relatively short time to get a lot of life requirements taken care of before the brutal Arizona fore-summer puts them down for estivation. March and April are the busiest time of year for our snake removal hotline, which means you can opt out of all of that rattlesnake-in-the-yard nonsense before things get busy.
Rattlesnake Solutions isn’t very active in February, either. Wait times to get on the installation schedule are at their lowest in February.
Out of sight, out of mind, or so the story of rattlesnakes in the minds of Phoenix residents seems to be. When the rattlesnakes largely disappear from view in the desert, the focus of Rattlesnake Solutions is in a lot of behind the scenes work – managing and refining our snake prevention services, improving how we do it, evaluating data and snake activity trends throughout the year, and most of all education.
As things warm up at the end of January, however, some important things happen. The first rattlesnakes of the year start showing up, and, now that the holidays are over, everyone’s “things to do next year” list comes off the fridge and into the forefront. Based on years of data and market trends: most people, even homeowners who are 100% on getting a snake fence, wait until they have another encounter before pulling the trigger.
Right now, the odds of finding open spaces on a rattlesnake fence installation calendar the highest all year. Cool daytime temperatures, too, mean that it can be installed faster than in those 110F days.
Supply and demand: slower times mean the best prices on snake proofing.
Everyone knows that to get the best prices on plane tickets, you book 6 weeks before, on a Wednesday … or is it 5 weeks? Something like that … getting the best price on products and services is often all about timing. In the case of rattlesnake fencing, January and February are often the best, fastest, and cheapest time to do it.
The reason? Availability of the primary material used in effective snake fencing: steel. (off topic, but if you’re looking at a snake fence estimate using plastic, throw it in the trash and keep shopping). As things heat up and rattlesnakes start showing up in backyards across Arizona, our demands on local steel suppliers goes up, and costs do accordingly. If any increases in price have ever happened, they’ve been in the summer during peak snake activity. In January and February, prices are at their lowest, and there are often some really great specials and discounts available (just ask).
By taking care of rattlesnake protection before rattlesnakes become a problem, you’re not only prepared for the upcoming rattlesnake season, but it can get done faster than any other time of year.
For more information about snake fencing in Arizona, or just any questions you have about rattlesnakes and protecting your home, we’re here to help.
Arizona is one of the fastest-growing areas of the country, and every home at the desert edge can benefit from a rattlesnake fence. Snake fencing is the only proven way to keep rattlesnakes away from your property and keep family and pets safe.
It’s October, and rattlesnakes are as active as ever. They’re moving around a lot right now, getting in some last meals, mating, and general rattlesnake “housekeeping” as they get ready for cooler months. This is also the time of year they begin to move back towards where they will spend the winter. Unfortunately for many homeowners in Arizona, that means your house or property. Rattlesnakes can and do overwinter in and around buildings, so how can you prevent your property from being a rattlesnake den?
Before going into the details, I should specify that this information may really only be completely relevant in the Sonoran Desert portions of Arizona, particularly Phoenix and Tucson. It’s also a lot of good general advice, but be aware that the further you are from saguaros, the less accurate it may be for your situation. The rattlesnake species that most-often comes into conflict with people is the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake. They’re generalists that make good use of the desert landscaping found at most homes on the outskirts of Phoenix and Tucson, and the species that I’ll be referring to in this article as “rattlesnake”, despite the several other species that also occur in these areas.
How rattlesnakes den for the winter in the Sonoran Desert is a bit different than in other parts of the country, or even other parts of their range within Arizona. In the lower, hot desert, it just doesn’t get cold enough in the winter to create a need for a lot of fuss over finding a perfect den. You may be familiar with photographs online of dozens or hundreds of rattlesnakes pouring out of a hole in the ground, usually with some silly comments. These are actual and accurate photographs, but from cooler climates where rattlesnakes may have fewer preferable areas to select from, during the longer and colder winter.
Here, where we may only get a handful of nights each year with sub-freezing temperatures, sun exposure everywhere, and countless rock piles and tunnels to choose from, snakes have it easy. This means that they tend to den in smaller groups, perhaps only a few individuals, or even alone. While some larger dens do certainly exist in some places, with 20 or more individuals, this is not as common as the smaller sites. Other species, like Speckled Rattlesnakes and Tiger Rattlesnakes, tend to den in a general area rather than a particular crack year-after-year, so avoiding the creation of an accidental den can be challenging. A primary driving force for choosing a den site appears to be the preservation of moisture, rather than sun exposure and access to heat [Hamilton, Nowak, Western North American Naturalist 69(3):319-328. 2009 ]. That means that a rattlesnake den in much of Arizona isn’t just some high rocky hilltop, but can be really anywhere at all. They may use different dens in different years, and are generally less predictable than in cooler climates.
Do rattlesnakes den at homes?
The Rattlesnake Solutions relocation hotline largely stops ringing in mid-November, after the snakes have completed ingress (moving into the den area they’ve selected). After that, we still get calls, but they are of a different nature – they are denning rattlesnakes. The places where we have found them over the past decade and the conditions they appear to be drawn to are consistent enough that we have a good idea of which features at a home are likely to become a rattlesnake den without some consideration.
These are the most common places where we see rattlesnake dens in the winter, and how to keep it from happening to you:
1. Rattlesnake Den in the Garage
To a rattlesnake a garage is just an insulated cave with some golf bags and fishing gear. By far, the most common rattlesnake den situation we find at homes in Arizona are storage areas in the garage. Typically, they are discovered in the early Springtime once the snakes tend to move towards the front of the garage, and are found coiled in the corner near the door. Upon inspection, these are almost always snakes that have apparently spent the entire winter in the garage (the homeowners usually don’t like this news).
They tend to use areas where boxes or other storage comes in close contact with the wall. This description probably fits most garages (including mine), but long-term storage with poorly-sealed boxes seems to be the most common and useful situation for rattlesnakes. Cardboard boxes that contain holiday decorations seem to be commonly used as a dens, as they provide some cover and additional insulation.
What can you do to keep your garage from becoming a rattlesnake den?
Make sure the garage door is in good shape and tightly sealed, especially at the edges and corners.
Fix any cracks in concrete and vents that lead to outside areas.
Keep the garage door closed as much as possible, even during the day, especially during the ingress period of October-November.
Keep the garage clean and move long-term storage to other areas.
Close access to any built-in closets, water heater areas, equipment rooms, etc.
Watch for signs of rodents (droppings, nesting material) and get rid of them if rodents are found.
2. Rattlesnake Den in the Pool Pump Area
A swimming pool is an extremely common feature at most homes in the Phoenix area, and it’s no surprise that rattlesnakes will make use of the often-overlooked pool pump and equipment area. These pump and filter areas are usually closed off and alongside the home, or otherwise separated from the rest of the yard. They’re also less often-visited than other areas of the property, so can get a “pass” on rodent activity and are generally less tidy than other parts of an even manicured yard.
In the winter, a common place for rattlesnakes to den is under the concrete base of the filter unit or other pump equipment. Rodents and erosion, along with the generally-higher humidity near the pump equipment and vibration, create caves and spaces that rattlesnakes apparently love. Each year, we receive numerous calls to relocate multiple rattlesnakes from situation.
What can you do to keep your pool pump and filter area from becoming a rattlesnake den?
Control the rodent population and make sure that any tunnels or digging is addressed immediately.
Keep the area clean and do not store anything there that isn’t necessary. Any clutter, buckets, bricks, and other things that tend to be stored in these areas can increase your chances of seeing a rattlesnake here.
Fix any cracks in the concrete pad and eliminate any spaces possible in the surrounding walls.
3. Rattlesnake den in decorative rocks
The third most common situation where we find rattlesnakes denning are rock piles and rip rap placed as decoration on the property. In many of these situations, the rock piles are placed in areas where they also come into contact with the surrounding landscaping. If this is done in a particular way, it can create a perfect situation for rattlesnakes looking to hide for the winter. More specifically, rosemary bushes or other large, low cover that tends to create deep leaf-litter that is allowed to grow over the top of rock piles, where the rocks are the size of a cantaloupe or larger, and are piled to a depth of more than 20″. If there is water nearby (drip system, pool, etc), this is even better for the snakes. If this all exists on a slope or at the edge of a wash, you should be surprised if rattlesnakes are not using it already. Each year we capture rattlesnakes in these situations, and more often than not, there is evidence to show that the snakes have been using these areas for a long time.
What can you do to keep your landscaping and decorative frock from becoming a rattlesnake den?
Keep plants and bushes trimmed back from the edge of the rock, and never let it grow over the top of or through the rock pile itself.
Make sure that decorative rock piles do not have deep spaces and are as shallow as possible.
Watch larger boulders for rodent activity and tunnels that may create spaces under them. If tunnels are found, use a garden hose to flood them and destroy them from the inside-out.
Seal spaces and crevices between larger rocks with concrete (or similar) so that access to the interior, protected area is eliminated.
Consider removing any plants or rocks in the property that you do not feel adds to the appeal to the property, or that you’re “on the fence” about keeping. Generally and unfortunately, a boring yard is a safe yard. Be sure not to add superfluous features.
4. Rattlesnake den under the home
The fourth, and most common in many areas, place where rattlesnake dens are frequently found are underneath homes themselves. This is typically most common in areas where manufactured homes are numerous, where the aluminum or wood skirting that lines the space under the home is easily breached by rodents and general wear and tear. In larger homes with a solid foundation, the situation can be even more difficult to solve, since the crawl spaces leading to where the snakes den can be difficult for a tall snake relocator (ahem) to fit into. We are often alerted to these dens by Air Conditioning repair technicians, who see a shed skin and refuse to crawl any further until it gets checked out. Fortunately, even though this can be relatively common and difficult to handle, it is relatively easy to prevent.
How can I keep my house from becoming a rattlesnake den?
Seal all cracks in the foundation, no matter how small or minor they appear to be. Even cracks that are too small for a rattlesnake to fit through may widen over time, and it is best to fix them as they are found.
Watch for any signs of erosion or digging by rodents at the edge of the home. If these holes go under the foundation, you’ve created an insulated and safe cave for rattlesnakes to use. Have a zero tolerance policy for any rodent activity at the base of the foundation.
Be aware of spaces in the flashing or spaces at the corners, pillars, and other joints where the stucco frame meets the foundation. Modern home construction seems to be less-than-concerned that the house is sealed properly. We commonly see gaps in corners, even completely open overhangs that can lead up and over the foundation itself or into the walls of the home. Do whatever needs to be done to fix this.
5. Rattlesnake den under the shed
A place where we regularly find rattlesnakes denning on a property is under a backyard shed. These structures are almost always less-maintained than the home itself, and have a variety of foundation types, even just plopped onto the dirt on a few cinderblocks. Unfortunately for us, these are perfect conditions for rodents, and the predators that eat them. Rattlesnakes can move into the spaces under the shed and be relatively undisturbed. Of all of the den conditions described here, backyard sheds seem to offer the most long-term refuge from winter cold, according to the number of shed skins and even dead snakes that we find there. Sometimes rodents even dig up into the shed itself and find additional cover opportunity in the stuff stored in there, which usually gets even less attention than boxes stored in the garage.
How do I keep rattlesnake from making a den under my shed?
Watch for any rodent activity and do what you can to eliminate it.
Put the shed on a foundation or support structure of some sort that does not allow gaps and easy access.
Use heavy materials and avoid things like particle-board, cheap plywood, and things that a rodent can easily get through.
Schedule a yearly cleanout of the shed itself to keep things clean and review items to possibly cut down on the amount of clutter stored inside.
Keep anything that can be eaten out of there – birdseed, dogfood, grass seed, and other edibles are often kept in these sheds, and can attract rodents (and rattlesnakes as a result).
If the shed is build near a wall, make sure to clean out the space between the wall and prevent landscaping debris from piling up there.
6. Rattlesnake den in the grill island
This will be the last potential rattlesnake den situation that is covered here. It’s a little bit less common than the others, but its nature and tendency to put sandal-wearing or bare feet in close proximity to rattlesnake fangs makes it worth noting. At many homes in the Phoenix and Tucson metro areas, a stand-alone grill island is a standard feature. The trouble is, all those burger drippings and hot dogs that slip through the cracks can attract rodents, and once again, rattlesnakes who are looking for them. These islands usually have an access door on one side, and at least one vent on the rear side. Some also have inlets for propane stored elsewhere, or even extend into other features like a bench. The construction of these islands is usually flimpsy and tends to fall apart at the corners relatively quickly, leaving easy access for hungry rodents and one-stop-shopping for rattlesnakes in search of a place to hide away for the winter.
How do I keep a rattlesnake den from forming under my grill?
Keep the access door closed at all times and make sure that it latches tightly.
Cover vents with 1/4″ steel hardware cloth mesh.
Completely seal all cracks that may appear in the stucco, and make sure that any interior openings for access to propane and other pipes is sealed entirely.
Keep it clean! If you see any rodent droppings under there (like a squishy brown tictac), you have rodents running around the area where you make your hamburgers. That’s not only gross, but a potential attractant for rattlesnakes.
Have your entire yard sealed properly by having rattlesnake fence professionally installed.
Don’t let your guard down just because it’s cold outside. Rattlesnakes in Arizona are active all year.
A term that people throw around and the local news loves is rattlesnake “season”. This implies that rattlesnakes show up at some point, stay awhile, and disappear – and nobody has to worry about it until rattlesnake “season” starts up again! This may be true in some places where ice-scrapers are sold, but here in Arizona, rattlesnakes are active to some degree every month of the year. They may not be traveling or hunting, but if they definitely will come out on a sunny day or after a rain even on cool winter days. No matter if you have one of the above feature or not, the greatest rattlesnake den advice I have to give is to continue to follow the rattlesnake safety rules as you normally would. Don’t reach where you can’t see, clean up messes as you make them, get rid of rodents and clutter, and so on. Just because it’s cold out doesn’t mean you can’t meet a rattlesnake, and if you’re sharing a garage with one, that could be any time at all.
If you have any rattlesnake den stories or have found one at your home, or you have questions about any of these features and want more information about what you can do to help keep a rattlesnake den from showing up at your place, contact us.
We’re happy to announce that Rattlesnake Solutions has expanded service to Yavapai county, and can handle any rattlesnake relocation that may be needed in Prescott, Prescott Valley, Chino Valley, Cottonwood, and Sedona (and surrounding areas).
The species found in that area add to the list of possible rattlesnake species we’ve been able to relocate in our existing service area. Soon, we’ll have some photos of Arizona Black Rattlesnakes and many more Blacktailed Rattlesnakes to add to the feed!
If you know anyone in the area that could use some help with rattlesnake prevention and snake relocation, please send them our contact information.
Rattlesnake Removal, Prescott, Prescott Valley, Chino Hills, and surrounding areas
Rattlesnake solutions offers completely safe, humane, all-hours to removal of unwanted reptiles from your home or business in the quad-city area. Rattlesnakes are the most common where homes meet desert habitat, and snake sightings are common almost year-round, but in the Prescott area, they’re most likely to occur from late Spring (April) through the monsoon season (September) when rattlesnakes travel to Winter dens. Pest control companies can’t help and really, most wildlife services companies may offer some snake services but don’t have the knowledge to truly do it correctly. More details about our snake removal services in the Prescott area.
Property Inspections for homes in the Prescott area
We’re not just rattlesnake removal specialists; the Rattlesnake Solutions field team is made of field herpetologists, biologists, snake researchers, and reptile lovers with thousands of hours experience tracking and capturing rattlesnakes in wild situations. Rattlesnake Solutions field team agents bring this experience to your property. You’ll learn what could be possibly attracting snakes, and how to make minor changes to reduce your chances for unwanted rattlesnake encounters.
Many people move to Arizona for our near-constant sunshine, and mild winters. These also make for perfect conditions for reptiles, which to the dismay of many homeowners, live in great numbers throughout the state. Where our neighborhoods meet the desert, an encounter with a snake every so often is just part of life.
The valley is home to 6 unique species of rattlesnake, all of which pack a harmful, venomous bite. A bite, which if logic prevails, is almost always optional. Rattlesnakes are on the menu for many desert predators. They’re nervous, shy, and like most animals, will try to prevent their own death when it is threatened. Rattlesnakes do not chase, jump at, or come after perceived predators, regardless of the numerous, fictional tales we as Arizonans are sure to hear. The fact is; rattlesnakes encounters are almost always harmless if in nature, and optional in our yards.
So what is the home owner to do, when a venomous visitor suddenly drops by one morning, coiled on the porch and going nowhere? The first thing to consider: nobody is in danger. The snake has been seen, and the only way anyone will be within range of a bite is if they put themselves there. Statistically, this is what many shovel-wielding husbands will do, becoming the single largest bite statistic, by far. A bite to the hand of a home hero can cost well over $100,000, cause incredible pain, and result in disfigurement and occasional death. Contacting a professional to remove the animal costs around $100, and is absolutely safe and humane.
Taking one step back – why is the snake there? Isn’t there some way to keep them from being there in the first place? Fortunately there is. Here are a few tips to keep your yard as rattlesnake-free as possible:
The desert is a hard place to live; make sure your yard isn’t an oasis. Rattlesnakes want food, water, and shelter. Deny those, and the yard is nothing interesting. Fix leaky hoses, keep the yard clean, and make sure all of the bushes are trimmed and free of dead plant material underneath.
If you have a view fence or wall surrounding the property, complete the barricade. Door sweeps and wire fencing can be installed to keep animals out. It’s a relatively inexpensive Saturday project for the handy, or contact a snake removal company to install it for you.
Forget the store-bought snake repellents and mothballs; they simply do not work. Many pest control companies will swear they do, but all research points to repellants being a smelly waste-of-money.
Dogs can be trained to avoid rattlesnakes by a number of businesses around the valley, and an inexpensive vaccine can be requested by most veterinarians. Keep dogs on a leash in desert areas, and have emergency information on-hand if you live near open, native desert.
Despite the very high number of snakes that are found here, bites still make the front page when they occur. It is a relatively rare event with an extremely low fatality rate, which somehow still occupies a place in our culture as a major threat to be feared by every desert home owner. As citizens in this amazing Sonoran habitat, it is the responsibility of all of us to be peaceful, well-informed co-inhabitants with the desert wildlife. Rattlesnakes may be the thing of nightmares to many, but that is an optional fear that, like most fears, fades to nothing with a willingness to learn and a touch of understanding.
In the valley, the most common places to run into a rattlesnake in your own yard are Cave Cree, Scottsdale, and other areas where there is a lot of development and contact with native areas.
Most Commonly Encountered Snakes in the Phoenix Area
Western Diamondback Rattlesnake
VENOMOUS – Grey to tan in color, between 1’ and 4’ long. Easily identified by the distinct white and black banded tail, and rattle. Defensive in nature but easily avoided if encountered. Do not attempt to capture, kill, or otherwise interact with this snake.
BENEFICIAL – Also commonly misidentified as a “bullsnake”. Tan, yellow, or orange in color, with dark brown blotches, between 1.5’ and 5’in length. Defensive if attacked, but non-venomous and will not bite unless attacked. A gophersnake is great free pest control.
BENEFICIAL – Grey or dark brown with double rows of spots on the back, between 8” and 14” in length. Often confused with a baby rattlesnake due to elliptical eyes and triangular head. Absolutely harmless, this snake feeds on spiders and scorpions in the yard.
VENOMOUS – Highly variable, this snake takes the coloration of rock where it is found; orange, brown, white, or light grey. It is small, between 1’ and 3’ in length. If seen, do not approach this snake for any reason.
BENEFICIAL – Often confused with the kingsnake, this snake is between 8” and 3’ long. It eats lizards and their eggs. They are absolutely harmless, and can reduce rattlesnake-attracting prey in a yard.
BENEFICIAL – Black and white banding from head to tail, and between 1’ and 4’ in length. Kingsnakes consider rattlesnakes a primary food source, and are great to have on a property. They may bite if picked up, but are otherwise completely harmless.
BENEFICIAL – Fast, slender, and between 1’ and 5’ in length. May be black, olive, or red in color. This snake eats rattlesnakes and other prey items and should be kept as-is if seen. They will bite if picked up, but move away quickly if seen and are difficult to capture.